Re: BLUE GENE and confusion about flops and tops and whistles

From: Philip Goetz (
Date: Fri Apr 07 2006 - 14:22:11 MDT

On 4/6/06, Neil H. <> wrote:
> It's thought that the neurons used for interaural time-difference detection
> in birds (for sound localization) primarily function as delay lines. Of
> course, it's also possible that they have other functionalities besides
> providing variable time delays.

"A novel approach to hearing: The acoustic world of pneumorid
grasshoppers", in _Complex Worlds from Simpler Nervous Systems_, gives
an excellent, detailed study of how grasshoppers localize sound, and
involves the use of neurons as delay lines. It is remarkable in that
auditory neurons are linked directly to motor neurons, so that a sound
of a particular frequency can cause the grasshopper to turn toward it,
apparently without any other neural system intervening. Hence,
grasshoppers have no free will, at least in this case.

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